7 Countries Move Up in Top 100 Ranking for Diesel Sulfur Limits

HOUSTON (March 20, 2017) – Stratas Advisors, a leading global provider of market analytics and
energy solutions, released their annual report this month ranking the top 100 countries limiting sulfur-use
in diesel. The report confirms a continued global movement toward lower sulfur content in diesel and
cites a number of countries implementing policy initiatives to make advances in their diesel refinement
processes. Since Stratas Advisors’ 2016 ranking on diesel sulfur limits, seven countries improved their
sulfur levels.

For decades, policymakers and industry leaders have placed emphasis on reducing sulfur limits in
fuels to prevent environmental and health effects caused by fuel combustion. Since January 2009, the
European Union required 100% market penetration of sulfur-free fuels (less than 10 ppm), which has
positioned these countries as the top 40 leaders in sulfur reduction. Sweden, which led the way with full
market penetration in 1990, continues to reign at No. 1.

As countries in the European Union continue to take the lead, this year’s ranking highlights seven
countries that implemented stricter sulfur limits or supplied lower sulfur diesel. The seven include:

• Bahrain
• Bosnia & Herzegovina
• China
• Lebanon
• Macau
• Morocco
• Myanmar

Countries, such as Brazil and India, maintained similar standards as last year but dropped in ranking
due to other countries’ advancements in sulfur reduction and improved policies. Four Central American
countries - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua - dropped out of the 2017 ranking, because
Myanmar jumped 53 places to enter the Top 100 for the first time. Myanmar is followed by Lebanon,
which moved up 52 places to enter at 76th place, and Bosnia & Herzegovina, which jumped 14 places to
share the 61st place with Ukraine.

To establish the rankings, four primary criteria were used (in order of importance):
1. Maximum approved limits in national standards and legislation
2. Year of implementation for sulfur limits as required by legislation, and year of voluntary
     implementation ─ if any
3. Limits in local or regional standards (such as specifications for cities or states)
4. Market levels are used where necessary to help rank countries sharing the same legislated limit

To read a recent commentary on this report, visit StratasAdvisors.com/Insights. The full report is
available to members of Stratas Advisors’ Global Fuels Specifications service, which holds the
complete list of rankings and other key information about sulfur content in diesel.

About Stratas Advisors

Stratas Advisors, a Hart Energy company, is a leading global consulting and analytics provider for
upstream, midstream and downstream energy markets and related sectors, such as automotive;
transportation; power; petrochemicals and heavy industries. Stratas Advisors’ team of experts provides
data and strategic insights to companies seeking to understand key drivers shaping development. Stratas
Advisors’ consultants and analysts offer forward-looking perspectives to help energy decision makers
leverage opportunities, mitigate risk and implement strategies. Stratas Advisors is headquartered in
Houston with offices in Brussels and Singapore.